Journey: NGO TO MBO

Journey: NGO TO MBO



HNN is an organization working with/for/by HBWs in national level to secure, protect, and promote the livelihood of invisible, unprotected and unsecure in the informal economy. The organization was established in 2001 aiming to improve the sustainable living of the HBWs through lobbying and advocating in different level. It has long experiences, learning and understanding about issues, concerned and its opportunities. It has been running through the legal provision of county as registered under social welfare act. The constitution of the organization strong the derive membership process of HBWs. However, the structure of the organization becomes more democratic with the representation of 100% MBOs of HBWs by early 2011. 


HNN has more than 164 organizations in its networks till 2017. The organization conceptualizes that to be more representative and strong organizing of HBWs in each and every clusters/groups; it has develop a strong network by identifying more organizations. For this, HNN has started to review and screen the possible organizations from the network and identified list. Out of all, HNN screened 51 organizations for preliminary process. Then after there was another level of reviewed and screened 35 organizations from 51 organizations for base line survey on which 20 organizations refers for structure study based on the report of base line survey.

There are some more analyses and internalization has happened within institution through interaction and its modality to support to all of the HBWs.


This is the first step of the MBO modality where other steps of the study were dependent. The screening of organizations is very much crucial and very much important to understand and segregate the organization based on principle and value of the institutional mission.

Process to screen the organization:

There are some characteristics, natures of the organization which support to screen the organization in 1st step towards identifying the membership based organization:

Type and work of organization:

  • Are they works with HBWs?
  • Are they works for women and men both?
  • What they are doing with members/HBWs?
  • How many possible numbers of HBWs are the members of organization?
  • They have membership provision or not?
  • Where the organization registered?
  • What are the major activities organizations conducting to the members?
  • Do they have experiences working with HBWs?
  • Are the organization is possible membership based organization?
  • What the mission, vision and goal of the organization?
  • Are they alliances, are they network, are they union or potentiality?
  • What are the resources available?

What is mapping?

Mapping methodologies work to train and develop leaders, producing a database that can be used as a uniting tool for home based workers to facilitate a collective strategy for change. Two types of mapping are used.

Horizontal Mapping: It refers to the method used to document the identifying characteristics of the home workers, their location and industry sector, by contracting individuals and their homes or communities. Horizontal mapping focused on home situation, their work processes, their employment relationship, payment amounts and processes and the problems and issues they face.

Vertical Mapping: It refers to a process that identifies the chain of production linking home workers, subcontractors, intermediaries, buyers and brand owners.

Among these two processes, HNN follows …….

Steps in Mapping

HNN adopted some specific steps during baseline survey of MBOs to achieve the target goal within time.

1st step:

  • List out the 164 network organizations that are current in network/ alliance
  • Screen the organizations from 164 by applying above mentioned process
  • Listing the final possible organizations

2nd step:

  • Identify the organization from other secondary information and from network and alliance by visiting all the organization with purpose.
  • Collect all the information what they provided and analyze by the study team with possible criteria and propose of the organization.

Criteria for baseline survey/Mapping:

Types of organization: union, CBO, self-help group, HBWs group, NGO/CBO, mother group, user's group. Etc.

HBWs Number: Number of HBWs in the organization

Membership process: who are members of the organization? Who can join? Who is excluded from membership? Where are they? What are the roles and responsibilities they have? What is the membership process? Is there membership fee?

Priories: what are the priorities? Is there particular focus to support working poor? And what are the priori activities?

Approaches: What is the organization approaches to work? Is their constitution allow that to adopted mix approaches? How community people/member involved? Is organization can work with collaborative form with other?

Organization objectives: what do the organizations want to achieve? What are the target groups? What are the objective and target of the organizations?

Resource: What are the sources of the organization? How they allocate the resources for the benefit of members? How many HBWs are benefited from the organizations?  

Strategy approaches adopted:

First decision was made in broader sense by looking the aims, size, scope, shape, geographical coverage and membership of the organization after consultation in the institution and with governing body of HNN based on set criteria This should be whole process that in policy and program level of HNN.

Mapping conducted: Baseline survey/ Mapping was conducted within selected 35 organizations from 51 first prior lists. For the survey, consultant was hired and minimum criteria and steps were selected by the team members based on given mandate from by the institutional guideline and program and planning.

The research basically adopted the mix methodology (qualitative and quantitative) and samples were taken from the organization. The primary information of the institution was taken with governing body and management team of the organization and issues based information were collected with direct interview and interaction with HBWs member of the same organization by following questioners/ guideline developed.

Guideline for the Mapping:




Finally, the collected information was analyzed and report develops based on our objectives and checklist. The report was presented among the organizations by conducted workshops and group meeting with them. Moreover to this, some follow-up visits and meetings were conducted to finalize the survey.  The final report was presented with the board of the HNN for final approval. Some cert

Challenges and Learning:

It is not easy to identify the organizations for mapping as per HNN requirement. Therefore, long exercises were done before interning into the field.  Firstly, there are challenges to identify the possible membership based organization. Secondly, it is very much difficult to identify the organization that is build-up or working with or for HBWs. Third, the term membership based organizations is not in used in the context of Nepal. Forth, there is gap in-between saying and doing by the organization in the case of membership provision (most of the organization want to show they are democratic but in practice most are autocratic). Fifth, national political scenario and its implication also remain part of our challenges for planning, travelling and so on during survey.

How the challenges were faced?


Principally structure study was based on the democratic governing system of member organizations of HBWs in Nepal. To conduct the study HNN took some strategies and design the process as prior to the objective of organization.

Objectives of the study:

  • To analyze the selected member organizations of HBWs based on program
  • To undertook the study with specific priority of the democratic governing system of the member organizations of HBWs and HBWs representation in decision making process.
  • To support to transform the structure of HNN into MBO modality for the greater representation of HBWs in governance of HNN and its national and international realm.

Steps for structure study:

HNN has defined and developed some specific strategy for structure study:

Review the report of Baseline survey: To analyze and finalized the organizations for structure study HNN reviewed the report of baseline survey and its finding as well as suggestions. On the basis of that the 20 organizations were selected for structure study. The issues of HBWs were also analyzed which were as follows:

Issues of HBWs:

The following issues of HBWs were identified and recognized from the survey:

  • Irregular work, low and irregular income
  • No identifying employers (chain subcontracting process)
  • High Exploitation in the work
  • Lack of access to the services provided by government and other stakeholders
  • Lack of access to information and communication
  • Low capability and education/ skill
  • No direct market access (Own account)
  • No access to credit
  • Limited organizing/ right to organize
  • Lack of Social security benefit
  • Invisible, unprotected and isolated in the home with double burden of work
  • Fare of losing work
  • No equal value of work and wage in gender basis

Major criteria of the structure study:

The structure study is concerned on the following criteria to understand the member organization. Importantly, the study guideline was developed based on the mentioned criteria as follows:

Types of member organizations: union, CBO, self-help group, HBWs group, NGO/CBO, mother group, user's group. Etc. with number of HBWs member in the organization

Membership process: who are members of the organization? What are the criteria for the membership? Who can join? Who is excluded from membership? What is the membership process? Is there membership fee? Are the HBWs members in decision making process?

Priories: what are the priorities of the member organization? Is there particular focus to support working poor HBWs? And what are the priori activities? Is there any social welfare scheme for members?

Approaches: What is the organization approaches to work? Is their constitution allows to adopted mix approaches? How member involved in programming/planning process and implementation? Is organization can work with collaborative form with other? What is the membership modality for sustainable approaches? What is the roles and responsibilities of members?

Organization objectives: what does the organization want to achieve? What is the mission of the organization? What is the objective and target of the organization?

Resource: What are the sources of the organization? How they allocate the resources for the benefit of members? How many HBWs are benefited from the organizations?  Is there any support funded by donor for program?

Characteristic of member organization: Is the organization following the democratic process? Is the organization transparent and accountable towards members? Is organization ……………………….?

Internal Challenges of member organization: How they are democratic? How the members have been taking the ownership, the management and decision making role? How effective administration and institutional management? Is leader is effective or visionary? And so on?

Outcome of the study:

Base line survey is entry point in MBO structure. The structure study gave detail of the organization on how the organization established, how it has been running, what are mission and objective as well as current activities, are activities for members, how members are working, are the HBWs in decision making process? Etc. During study, HNN conducted the meeting and FGDs with the leaders of organizations. Based on the interaction held with the leaders, HNN visited and conducted the meetings of each individual organization and only enter in the community and general members.

Quality of researcher:

  • Speak the workers' language
  • Understand and respect the background of HBWs and their culture
  • Know the key problems and issues facing by workers
  • Honest and trustworthy and committed
  • Acting independently and impartially in democratic
  • Have confidence, courage and friendship
  • Know how to listen and how to communicate

Challenges and learning


Time: leaders/HBWs have very limited time to attend meetings and engage in the organizational activities due to their work and responsibility

Cultural practices: Culturally the women and other working people have strike rule to open up their issues

Traditional attitudes: the patriarchal society, domination of the head of the family or organization to share the problems and issues

Low Confidence: worker may have low confidence to share and participate in the institutional activities

Transportation facility: heavy trafficking, damage road and low quality of vehicle to reach in time

Political challenges: Due to political instability there is frequent strike and other program




HNN conducted sharing meeting among studied member organizations to know the report and its finding about their organization. The organizations are prime and important during and after study in MBO modality. Therefore, it is important to know what HNN found about their organizations and what actually HNN want to do with the member organizations and for HBWs. Moreover to this, HNN conducted regular basis interaction with the member organization while moving in the mission. Basically there was interaction about the concept of MBO and its in-depth meaning.


The HBWs have been facing numerous problems in everyday life. They have been living in difficult situation. The organization is for most important to support on their own issues and it strong force for collective work and power to fight with different types of problems. It is a way problem solving of the working members:


Process to identify the problem:

Need to assess the members situation- economic, social, cultural and family relation

Need to assess and deal with their issues quickly- what they really want to changes on the current situation

Identify the area to support/help them properly

Identify the relation and support of other members

Need to analyze individual interest and collective interest



Consultation and network meetings are strong means in the meaning making process especially for the concept of MBO, its process and characteristics. There was some specific schedule and contain derive for each consultation which strongly derive the meeting with members organizations and MBOs. The step wise consultation provides clarity among the member organizations and MBOs it ranging from issues of HBWs/MBOs to its modality, characteristics and criteria.

HNN has been dealing with MBOs as organizer by following the guideline

Guideline for organizer:

  • A good listener,
  • Tactful and understanding of the voice of HBWs/MBOs
  • Probing-for ture and fact
  • Patient- allowing time for more issue and concept
  • Being gender sensitive
  • Honest about what they want to do
  • Clear about what member organization want to express
  • Open to share the meaning and motive of HNN in MBO modality
  • Support to reduce the fare, anger and difficult of leaders

Challenges and Learning:


Fare: Some member organizations have fare that HNN will control all the freedom and self-dignify institutional concept.

Political challenge: There is dough among the MBOs it may politicized to all

Time: It may harm and changes the institution mission for short time

Exploitation: It may exploit and harm to the MBOs and members

Risk: risk for being independent organization


Training is entry point to enhancing the capacity of MBOs and HBWs in the cluster. There was some ground work to conceptualize the issues in same mission and in same vision in the each country HomeNets. On the basis of that and other process taken by country HomeNets, HNSA conducted a regional level training/ exposure in Ahamedabd, India in the end of 2009. It was the process to building institution and enhancing the capacity of MBOs and member organizations in the MBO modality. MBO modality is the practices of democratic process and greater visibility and representation of HBWs up to decision making process.


  • Participated in regional level MBO training/ exposure in Ahamedabad, India
  • More clearer understanding developed
  • Leadership capacity enhanced
  • Further activities and strategy designed- as post MBO training in national level

Contain for the MBO training:

  • What is the meaning of MBOs?
  • What is the meaning of MBOPs?
  • What is the meaning of MBOs of HBWs?
  • The theoretical understanding to MBOs and practices
  • What are types of MBOs around the world: cooperative, union, informal group and so on.
  • What are the nature and pattern of the MBOs?
  • Constitution, rules and regulations should be?
  • What are practical differences among MBOs of HBWs and other: analyzing skills and practical implications, education and knowledge of the MBOs
  • Exposure visits and lives sharing by the members of MBOs in SEWA.
  • Documentation, reporting and planning in the program process of MBOs



HNN conducted follow-up meetings and network meeting to share the learning of MBO training with the rest of the organizations with the support of participating team including MBO representative. In the meeting some issues such as the meaning of MBOs and its conceptual clarity come out boarder.


  • Immediate after the MBO training, HNN started mobilizing its participating team & staff team to collect the profile of MBOs, possible MBOs & Networking organizations.
  • Conducted groundwork on how to conduct MBO training in National level along with other participating team.
  • Conducted a situation analysis on the need of MBO training by Network Members.


HNN was able to educate all the member organizations and MBOs on its mission. The profile was developed with the consultation with member organizations and MBOs to develop the data based within MBOs and HNN. The profile of MBOs was also developed with the consultation with the organization before finalizing it.


HNN conducted MBO training in national level targeting to selected MBOs in between mix nature of MBOs by developing training material and manual.


  • Designed training manual
  • Conducted 1st MBO training in National level to select organization.
  • Developed membership profile for members / HBWs of MBOs

Contain of MBO training:

  1. Concept of MBOs of HBWs

Conceptual and practical orientation was given to the representative of member organizations and MBOs on MBOs of HBWs. Some significant points were discussed on the training:

  • What is the concept of MBO theoretically and in the context of Nepal?
  • What are the characteristics of MBO?
  • Are other organizations such as mother institutions, political parties, women groups MBO?
  • What are the differences of MBO of HBWs and other?
  • How HBWs will be representative and in the leading position?
  • How the decision done by HBWs in MBOs?
  • What are the experiences of the HBWs in their organization currently?
  • What are the major activities and functions by MBOs?
  • Are all the MBOs providing support to the HBWs? If so, what are the supports?


  1. Types, nature of MBOs

There are different types of member organizations in Nepal. Every organization has their own objectives to work with, for members. However, the concept of MBOs of HBWs is different than other. The MBOs of HBWs must work by/for/with/to HBWs. Similarly, there are different code of conduct and rules and regulations for registration.

  • Are MBOs cooperative?
  • Are MBOs union?
  • Are MBOs CBOs?
  • Are MBOs NGOs?
  • Are MBOs Fair Trade Organizations?
  • Are MBOs Self-help Groups?
  • Are MBOs informal Group?
  • Are MBOs producer Group?
  • Are MBOs users' Groups?
  • Are MBOs community organizations?
  • Are MBOs women's Groups?
  • Are MBOs Mother's Groups? Or what?
  • What is the nature of each type of MBOs?


  1. Roles and responsibility of MBOs

In the MBOs members are responsible for each and every activity from top to bottom.

Based on institutional structure there will be different roles and responsibilities of the members:

Role of MBOs:

  • How members take their role in the organization?
  • Who is president (decision making and leadership role)?
  • Who is secretary?
  • Who is treasure?
  • Who are members?
  • Who can be members for future?
  • How to perform the role form the different position?
  • What will be relation with other MBOs and other network and stakeholders?
  • What are the certain and specific role of the members, leaders and staff (in there is staff)?

Responsibility of MBOs:

How to derive organization?

How to segregate the responsibility?

What is the responsibility of each?


  1. Leadership role in MBOs


Leadership should be strong, representative, work collectively and listen to their members, organization can flourish.

  • Qualities of an effective leader of HBWs:
  • Committed to organizational objectives, policies and values
  • Committed to serving the interests of the members
  • The person is very close to the members
  • Leader should honest and sincere
  • Respectful to other opinions and listens to members
  • Able to work collectively and contribute as part of a group
  • Willing to accept responsibility and able to inspire and influence to others
  • Confident of self and the members
  • Full of initiative, drive and energy


  1. Data based- profiling of MBOs and HBWs in two different tire
  2. Mobilization of MBOs- organizing of HBWs and building institution and collective action

Management system, activities, saving, staff ect.


After the collection of profile, HNN categorized all the 51 organizations associated with it in 3 different categories.


  • Category 1: In category one, HNN selected those organizations which meets all the 5 criteria of MBOs (union of HBWs, producer group of HBWs and selected cooperatives). 


  • Category 2: In category two, HNN selected those organizations which meets upto 3 of 5 criteria  and committed to improve as an MBO  within their organizations.


  • Category 3: In third category, organizations which meets at least 2 criteria and


  • Category 4: In fourth category, HNN selected those organizations which were not entitled as MBO at that time and needed more intervention but are interested to act as an MBO of HBWs.


  • MBO data based/ profiling practices administered



The constitution is the foundation of organization made by members. The organization should be clear on objectives, structures and rules. It needs policies and procedures to binding to all members, leaders and staff. It should be democratic, strongly guided with organization's principles and values, empower and educate the members, protect against mismanagement and reviewed and amended if necessary through democratic process.  The constitution is a body of rules mutually agreed to by the members to guide the conduct of the organization.

Thus, on the transformation phase of HNN, it was discussed with its greater experiences and the current status of HNN. The earlier constitution was based on traditional NGO practices on which the current made discussion by following the perfect democratic system and the organizations want the representation of HBWs in MBO structure fully. Therefore, the prepare for the amendment and it was passed by AGM.

  • Overall progress, challenges and learning were shared in ex. com
  • Possibility and status also reported in the
  •  had in-depth discussion on the modality
  • Discussion held on constitution and its amendment process and cluster
  • Preparation was done for AGM


Subjective matter for the constitution:

  • Objective and principle of the organization
  • Membership provision and process: who are the members and on what process
  • Structure of the organization: how many numbers, there representation etc
  • Meeting of the how often leaders and members meet
  • Communication among member: how members meet and share the issues and sharing of progress and other report to members
  • Election process: AGM and its election process, how and when often leaders are elected
  • Role and responsibilities and decision making process
  • Gender balance: women and men representation in the
  • Financial system: financial/ accounting system, rules and regulation, audit report, posting day to day expenditure and management of financial follow-up

Host annual general meeting:

The HBWs of MBOs have rights and duty to choose their own leaders through an election process. Based on constitution, the election was held to strength the institutional process. It needs to understand that there are two procedure outcomes as normal AGM and AGM for election. The AGM for election can choose the leaders for the benefit of HBWs in different level.

Election principles:

  • Members elect their own leader though election process
  • The election should be free and everyone free to choose their own leader and respect to everyone
  • One member one vote
  • No gender, religious, sexual and group discrimination
  • Agreed term to every members/ confidentiality
  • Decision made by members

Major process:

  • The AGM was held in amidst presence of Enforcer of HNSA Ms. Chandni Joshi and had decided on various issues.
  • Constitution Amendment was done as per progressive structure
  • AGM was conducted with voting rights of MBOs
  • Structure was changed
  • The meeting also formed a governing body for coming 3 years tenure with representation of leaders of HBWs and MBOs too
  • Mix executive body was elected



Based on the need identified by profiling as well as interaction held with MBOs/leaders, HNN conducted a two day MBO training to its board members MBOs and some support staffs.  This training focused on the following: Concept of MBOs of HBWs, Types and nature of MBOs, Roles and responsibilities of MBOs.

The training remained effective to the participants as they could learn about the MBOs, their roles & responsibilities, criteria and governance of MBOs etc. Also, different case studies (national and international) on MBO modality was presented during training which support to enhance the ability of board/ leader as well as staff.


HNN has conducted regular Meetings with Network members to understand the constraints, issues and challenges face for moving in direction of MBOs in different level. The main objectives of these meeting were to enhance the capacity of MBOs/ Network organizations in terms of leadership, institutional development, to address the issues of the hbws and to mainstream the mission, vision, objectives and activities etc.  in line with HomeNet Nepal.


Leadership should be strong, representative, work collectively and listen to their members. Leaders should have following characteristics:

  • Committed to organizational objectives, policies and values
  • Committed to serving the interests of the members
  • The person is very close to the members
  • Leader should honest and sincere
  • Respectful to other opinions and listens to members
  • Able to work collectively and contribute as part of a group
  • Willing to accept responsibility and able to inspire and influence to others
  • Confident of self and the members
  • Full of initiative, drive and energy

Institutional development:

HNN also conducts the network meeting on institutional development of MBOs. It includes conduction of meeting, minuting, reporting, documentation, cooperatives,, organizing & data base of HBWs

Addressing the Issues of HBWs:

HNN facilitates  to address the various issues. For example:- At one point, question arose whether Network members should change their constitution to become MBOs. Later it was discussed with MBO consultation group members who suggested that it is not imperative for any network members to change their constitution; however there should have certain attributes of an MBOs like representation of HBWs on board, HBWs having decision making power, there system should be transparent and democratic, etc.  


The livelihood issues in relation with urban poor HBWs is relatively new in the areas, that's way it become a challenges to raise awareness on the issues with network organizations. Due the loss network with the organizations working in the urban areas by focusing on urban development, the issues remain excluded from other eyes.


HNN learnt the development paradigm of urban focuses activities in national context. The meeting in MBOs level found to be more focuses on program and activities designing and implementation level with the focus to individual members. However, the meeting with other network organizations found to be more censuses on policy, programming and national and international development agenda. Sometime it has been taken as platform to collect and disseminated the information which is supportive to update for the organization.



HNN has conducted lots of interactions, exposure visits, MBOs training, regular follow-up and monitoring activities to enhance the capacity of Members organizations.

Enhancing capacity of member organization

Capacity building of the members organizations is very much essential and need based which properly design to address the problems and need of the organizations. To enhance the capacity of member's organizations, HNN conducted short and long capacity building trainings to some individuals MBO based on the type/ and nature of MBO.


Conducting interaction meetings and awareness rising

In order to increase awareness on needs, importance and impact of various issues to the lives of poor especially of women HBWs and their family members, HNN conducts interaction meeting and awareness rising programs.

Regular follow-up visit & institutional Support:

HNN has provided some basic support to some MBOs based on their need as requested to systematize and strengthen the organizations. These basic supports included

Institutional Support- how to minute, on how to propose agenda for the monthly meeting, organizing of HBWs, membership and profiling process has been oriented, facilitated and supported.

Technical support on saving and credit such as documentation, loan distribution, calculation of interest, method of passbook administration and book keep has been provided to those informal saving groups to develop better systematic process.  

And, regular follow up visit is conducted to motivate and enhance the creativity of the network and member organizations in some selected organizations.


HNN identified more member organizations in the cities/areas to increase its network. The same process of screening, mapping etc as mentioned above were conducted to select the MBOs as per HNN criterion. In order to build up the capacity of the selected organization regular orientation, interaction, follow up meetings has done. 


Identification of new organizations is not easy. It is time consuming work in term of reliability, orientation on MBO process and maser and observed the possibilities based on characteristics of MBO. Similarly, the high expectation and demanding process of the organization in programming level found another challenges to work and maintain the relation. It takes little bit long time and more resources (in monitory as well as human resource) to orient and make clear on the concept of MBO in practices and HNN structure as well as it principle and objectives in practical term.


It the space for HNN to develop its network, educate the people in the essence of membership driven process as well as democratic process to the organizations. It has been provided the area for thought and develops the guideline through identifying different nature of organizations and their relation with other organizations as well as different legal provision and practice which update to HNN.


  • Mobilization towards identification of more Member organizations in the cities/ areas
  • Based on guideline and constitution more interaction were held
  • Number of organizations list and network increased
  • Process has been done to screening the organization for MBO structure
  • Orientation, trainings, interactions, regular follow-up has been done with the organizations



In one hand HNN facilitates its networks members in organizing the clusters by conducting various awareness raising meetings, providing capacity building and orientation training. In other hand HNN helps different groups to form MBOs. For example in Setidevi VDC, HNN helped to form organization called Shrijanshil women groups. Through these processes HNN able to identify different clusters of HBWs, and successfully helped to form MBOs.


To identify the new clusters is the process of identify HBWs from the grass root, we can say it is micro level activity. It is one difficult and very time consuming work in term of areas, analyzing the gravity, types of work, possibility to facilitate for the organizing and orientation. It demands more time and resources.


It is important here that, we can found new area, new types of work and it covers all the excluded group and members of the society who are not associated anywhere; who have not ability to be part of any organization and other process.  


HNN conducted interaction program to review the status of MBOs. The interaction conducted on the basis of definition, characteristics, criteria, behavior, categories of MBOs in Nepal and its role on organizing, strengthening issues of HBWs and other urban working poor was discussed. The major issue raised and discussed in the program was regarding the lack of transparency, accountability; democratic practices within the organizations with ultimately effects the organization to run sustainably. Volunteerism and the feeling of ownership of the members and leaders is another issue in MBOs including in community level organizations. In addition, in relation to institutionalization of the MBOs, the criteria and administration of membership fee deemed to be a problem.   Despites of having numbers of legal instruments such Acts, Bi-laws, Policies etc, there is still absence of appropriate legal instrument to protect such intervention of MBOs.

Since most of the members organizations working with HBWs have been evolved deeply in various chains of production and/or marketing, they have been in the same way facing problems as well. This issue was correlated with minimum wage and social benefit of the HBWs in the discussion. During the interaction, participants not only discussed about problems and challenges but also discussed about advantages of the MBO structure that they have been experiencing. The benefits ranging from ownership, unity, solidarity, voices, leadership to institutional development to visibility and recognition of the HBWs were discussed and collected.

In the meeting various participants representing their particular organization had expressed their problems and concerns, challenges and hurdles they faced while working with HBWs and other urban working poor. At the end of the session all the opinions and views shard by the participants were collected and analyzed through SWOT methods.  The revealed major challenges and problems have been mentioned here below under three categories:-

 1) organizing & Management (Managerial weakness to run the organization, Lack of cooperation and coordination in between members, Lack of skill of time management, Lack of legal knowledge about labor issues and Lack of awareness and education ),

2) Policy and legal provision (Legal obstacles and absence of support from the government side and Lack of appropriate policy and act),

3)  Economic Factor (Impact of poverty in the organization, No specific commitment for volunteerism, Lack of accountability, transparency and ownership and No sustainability of the activities) and

 4) Others (Geographical, political threats, Lack of motivation and Need to compete with unfair organization)

The session concluded with consciences of the MBOs to conduct the orientation classes in their own organizations and they requested to HNN to conduct the regular interactive program like this also.  Thus, based on the discussions and the views expressed by the leaders, HBWs, representatives of the organizations, HNN came almost close the current situation of member organizations and itself. Based on this, it has to improve the understanding of MBO, its role, structure, behaviors, values and these in practice both in HNN and member based organizations level.



HNN, in a continuous and constance basis conducted interaction, orientations and follow-up visits to the MBOs in order to facilitate them to enhance their institutional development, technical support, capacity building training, and issue based interaction.

As impact of the facilitation provided by the HNN, MBOs efficiency was found to improve to some extent. The main objectives of these follow up meeting is to maintain the status and relationship with MBOs as well to support them to conduct various activities.


HNN conducted four days long exposure visit was conducted among board MBO (within and outside Kathmandu valley). This program was designed to enhance the ability of Board Members of HNN by exploring the knowledge and ideas from the grassroots level and was targeted to identify the realistic issues, problem and needs of HBWs in current situation. The program was conducted under FNV project out side the valley and as part of IUP with in the valley.

Objectives of the Program:

  • In-house evaluation of the on going program and speculating the future potentiality of MBOs
  • Capacity building of MBOs ' leaders/ Board Members
  • Observing the sequences and possibility of MBOs behavior and good governance.

The program included interaction meeting and home visit.

Interaction Meeting:

The interaction meeting was held with the boards, leaders and HBWs of the MBOs in particular MBOs with in Kathmandu valley to outside the valley. The specific priority of the HNN was to analysis the structures of MBOs, their behaviors, practices and membership driven process.

Home Visit:

Home visit is one of the major component to directly interact with HBWs and understand their really situation. This provided an opportunity to board members to understand each other problems and their situation at that movement.



HomeNet Nepal conducted series of consultation meetings meeting with the representatives of various MBOs comprises of Unions, co-operatives, self-help group, and NGOs of HNN.


The objectives of the meeting were

  • to prioritized the major action plan of MBOs/ HNN,
  • to formulate the strategy,
  • to derive the commitment from the MBO to follow the strategy of HNN moving towards a compete MBO and form more MBOs of HBWs.


During these meeting, issues such as institution development- democratic process, role of members, and their role benefit were discussed.

Institutional development-democratic process

Role of members and their role benefit

The participating leaders/ representatives of the MBOs/ organizations were found to be committed to apply the strategy to transform not only their respective MBOs but also HNN as a whole. They also agreed and shown their dedication to start keeping and updating the data base of hbws as per the format prescribed by HNN. They also agreed to elect hbw as the representative to HNN as may as possible. It was decided unanimously that the MBOs of HNN would formulate the programs targeting their members who are hbws and to send it to HNN in order to design the national level of action plan of HNN.


Some important issues such as institution development- democratic process, role of members, their role benefit  were discussed in different meetings 

  • HNN guidelines, working modality and representation of HBWs in the governing body and its important were also addressed
  • The consultation support provided to develop the guideline, modality and required program in the institutional basis
  • Consultation with network and alliance also done for policy based issues



In order to build the capacity of various types of MBOs, HNN conducted training in regional and district level.  For example:- HNN in coordination and support with HNSA & SEWA Academy took part in as exposure cum training program to the leaders of MBOs/ HBWs from 22nd to 25th Dec, 2010.  The program was aimed at building capacity of organizing, services delivery, orientating them on leadership and MBO principles from the strong MBO mechanism of SEWA. The program was participated by 10 HBWs- MBO leaders comprised of 2 HNN staffs.  The methodology used in the training was based on participatory (learning & sharing) & interactive approach which was included with multimedia, site visits and face to face interactions. The participants visited different organizations/ MBOs promoted by SEWA, and had interaction with the HBWs and Board and other members of the organization. In addition to this, several interactions were also conducted with senior leaders of SEWA along with their experiences - the organizing strategy and delivery mechanism.

Similarly, HNN conducted a 10 days long training program for selected 23 leaders from 11 needy MBOs on Cooperative Management and Accounting. The training was jointly organized by HNN and Co-up Helpline from 29th December to 12 January, 2011 in Kathmandu. The training was aimed at building capacity of MBOs in a sustainable manner through cooperative concept as the cooperatives are known as one of the most dynamic, democratic, transparent and accountable category of MBOs of HBWs.



During the period, there were different level of interactions and consultation has been held to developed and build-up the common consciences on the definition, understanding, characteristics, roles and responsibilities and structure of HNN.  

National Consultation Meeting on MBO

A National Consultation Meeting on Membership Based Organizations was organized jointly by HomeNet South Asia and HomeNet Nepal at Hotel Everest, Kathmandu on 28th-29th September, 2010. The program was attended by trainers from WIEGO, HomeNet South Asia, HomeNet Nepal and representatives of MBOs of Home Based Workers in Nepal. The representatives from Unions, Co-operatives, NGOs, Self-Help groups, and Informal groups were all brought together so that they be made familiar with the conceptual issues surrounding member based organizations- from its concepts to characteristics to its key features to the ways forward.

The discussions were held on concept of MBO in which a paper was presented by Mr. Dave from WEIGO and briefly shared the finding of the structure study which was done by HNN in 2009 in selected cities and selected organizations by HNN. In the same, the participants were divided categorically based on the natures of organizations such as co-operatives, trade union, self-help group, informal groups and NGOs. The group work was a participatory discussion on issues faced in forming MBOs. Each categorized group was asked to focus on the issues that they face in running their MBOs. Issues for discussion included -Capacity of organization to run MBO, Fund to run organization or membership fees, Problem in running the organization in democratic manner, Conflict within members of organization, Political decision differences within members of organization, Difficulties in registering organization due to differences raised regarding gender, caste/ethnicity discrimination and many others that each of the group thought concerned their functioning.


In the same consultation meeting, based on the group discussion, the vision and mission of HNN in the coming three years was prepared.

It was found from the presentation that that all the participants wanted that within 2013 the executive board of HNN should comprise exclusively of home based workers elected democratically by following the principle of inclusion. Though various organizations would be welcome to give support and advice they would have no right to vote and directly influence the process of decision making. The meeting concluded suggesting a 15 members MBO governing body with associate members in the board of HNN.

The meeting remained successful not only in term of participation and representation but also in terms of achievement and clear direction for HNN. Most on the organizations found to be happy being part of HNSA & HNN.



HNN conducted consultation meetings with boards to discuss on the following agenda

  • Who will be new MBO?
  • What will be the provision amendment process of constitution?
  • How to apply the declaration of MBO consultation meetings?
  • What will be the duration and the structure of HNN?

Board reviewed the list of MBOs and identified new MBOs of HBWs to be added to HNN. In case of the Provision amendment process of constitution, board went through the existing constitution and highlighted the basic and different points and also searched new possible ideas for new provision. Finally Board declared the provision with the help of legal advisor.

Board decided to conduct more consultation and meetings with MBOs for boarder way-out and implementation of the board decision. In the same consultation, board discussed about the membership fees of MBOs, its mandatory process, additional support and facilitation to MBOs

  • Based on the consultation meeting and its declaration, executive committee of HNN discussed and passed it decision from the board decision and prepared for next step for full-fledged MBO.
  • Board also decided for more consultation and meeting with MBOs
  • Board also discussed about membership fees of MBOs, its mandatory process  and additional support and facilitation to the MBOs



HomeNet Nepal organized a one-day consultation meeting on 9th, November, 2010 for the representatives of various MBOs comprises of Unions, co-operatives, self-help group, and NGOs of HNN.

The objectives of the meeting were

  • To prioritized the major action plan of MBOs/ HNN for the year 2011,
  • To formulate the strategy to implement the decisions of Kathmandu Consultation Meeting,
  • To derive the commitment from the MBO to follow the strategy of HNN moving towards a compete MBO and form more MBOs of HBWs.

In the conclusion, the participating leaders/ representatives of the MBOs/ organizations were found to be committed to apply the strategy to transform not only their respective MBOs but also HNN as a whole. They also agreed and shown their dedication to start keeping and updating the data base of HBWs as per the format prescribed by HNN. They also agreed to elect HBWs as the representative to HNN as many as possible. It was decided unanimously that the MBOs of HNN would formulate the programs targeting their members who are HBWs and to send it to HNN in order to design the national level of action plan of HNN. The meeting also re-cited the decision to translate HNN to a 100% MBO structure by the end of January, 2011 with commitment.


Coordination and consultation with MBOs in limited time found to be problematic. Limited knowledge of MBOs on the modality, practices and principle on MBOs and urban issues remain strong challenge to coordinate proper. 


The MBOs need from orientations, trainings, and exposures on the same. However, they have been participating actively in every consultation which is an essence for HNN. Their involvement, honesty, interest of learning and effective participation derives HNN as the network of MBOs.

  • Lobbying has been done with network and alliances to expand the network and MBOs in different level

HNN made all the efforts to change its entire structure into MBO modality to ensuring the representation, voting rights, participation and voice of HBWs through their membership based organization. Towards this process, HNN first of all conducted Mapping of HBOs and their organizations in different level and the institutional membership has been adapted by developing some significant guidelines. On the basis, so far HNN has incorporated 40 paid MBOs fulfilling all the 5 criteria set forth by HNN. In addition, there are about 11 more MBOs which have met all the criteria and are in the process of associating by paying membership fee and still there are another similar number of MBOs waiting to be enlisted officially with HNN. That means, the number of MBOs of HBWs are rapidly growing day by day. But time has come to think about the quality of those MBOs in relation with the real sense of MBO. In the process, HNN has been conducting consultation meeting and follow ups and training with MBOs in regular basis with those MBOs to enhance the institutional as well as leadership and carrying capabilities of MBOs/leaders of HBWs. In order to examine the status of those organizations in terms of MBOs of HBWs, HNN hired a consultant. The major focus of this review of HNN along with MBOs was to know about the structure, governing process, decision making process, participation, representation, ownership in the decision, constitutional provision and its implementation etc in HNN and in the MBO level so that it can concentrate upon improving the situation with more focus in the future.

Interaction with MBOs

An interaction meeting was scheduled in Kathmandu to review the status of governance and its process at HNN and at Particular MBO level. During the program a sheet of question was circulated to each representative. Later the participants were partitioned into groups. The answers, opinions and views of each representative of the groups were reported in group-wise for the overview of the status and their understanding which was further evaluated based on indicators. Though the expectation was to present all paid MBOs which was not happened. The 30 organizations have paid members of HNN in informal/producer groups.

Review on members organizations of HomeNet Nepal:

Review the status of Executive Committee of HomeNet Nepal

In order to know the status of executive committee of HomeNet Nepal, an questionnaires survey was conducted among the executive committee. From this review it was concluded that most of the working committee member are aware of the policies of the organization and their duties. However, the committee members should be equally empowered for the further development of the staffs and organization itself. The entire member has good experience in their individual organization about responsibilities; they seem interesting to understand about Home Net.

Review the status of MBOs of HomeNet Nepal

In order to know the current status of member organization of HomeNet Nepal and their governance and its practices with the efforts of HNN, HNN conducted survey among responsible representative of organization. For the survey seven organizations were selected, which included- one trade union, two NGOs, two self help workers and two cooperatives. It was concluded from the survey that all the organization members were aware of the sustainability of the organization and their responsibilities. All the organizations were interested in conducting training and they are hopping to get support from HomeNet.


Annual General Meeting (AGM) of HomeNet Nepal was held on the 6th of February, 2011 at Sap Falcha, Babarmahal, Kathmandu. HNN is transforming as network of MBOs of HBWs fully on which the AGM is main legal aspect and instrument of the organization which institutionalize all the decisions and legitimize institutional mechanism. During the program annual report and financial report was presented. On the same day an election was held democratically for the new Executive Committee of HNN. The constitution was amendment as per its new transformed structure.

Annual progress report

During the program the annual report of HNN was presented. The report contained the achievements of the organization in the given year, the activities that were carried out and the challenges that were faced in the process.

The report showed the important decisions that were made were regarding a long term partnership with Action Aid Nepal, long term livelihood improvement program focusing the home based workers who fall under the category of urban poor, affiliation of membership based organizations of HBWs, various activities to pressurize the government for the ratification of C-177, prioritization in the strengthening of the organization.

The report also showed the changes brought in the constitution of Nepal as per the specifications of HomeNet South Asia so that the organization gets the status of a MBO rather than of the NGO as it previously was. It was also put forth that the executive board of the organization will now be democratically elected from among the representatives of various affiliated MBOs of home based workers hence giving HBWs the opportunity to come up front and lead.

Financial report

The annual financial report was presented which clarified the budget of the various programs, the expenditure